Character Encoding Quick Guide

 
 
Encoding defines how the values of certain characters are represented, in terms of bits. Examples:
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), a 7-bit character set.
  • ISO-8859-1, a 8-bit character set.
  • Unicode, a 16-bit character set.


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Quick reference






How to display special characters on a web page




HTML and HTTP protocols make frequent reference to ISO Latin-1 and the character code ISO-8859-1. The HTTP specification mandates the use of the code ISO-8859-1 as the default character code that is passed over the network.

The term "ISO Latin-1" refers to a specific repertoire of "glyphs" (= "displayed characters") without reference to a particular encoding (= assigned to a value). ISO-8859-1 character code refers to ISO standard arrangement of ISO Latin-1 glyphs to code values. There are however other (non-ISO) encodings of the ISO Latin-1 glyphs. For example the IBM PC code page CP850.

ISO-8859-1 explicitly does not define displayable characters for positions 0-31 and 127-159, and the HTML standard does not allow those to be used for displayable characters. The only characters in this range that are used are 9, 10 and 13, which are tab, newline and carriage return respectively.

Note: ISO-8859-1 is also known as Latin-1.

To add the ® character in HTML, type:
  • &#decimal_value;

    For example: ®    

  • &#xhex_value;

    For example: ®


Decimal Hex Unicode Description Character Entity Name
009 09 0009 horizontal tab [ht]  
010 0A 000A new line, line feed [nl]  
013 0D 000D carriage return [cr]  
033 21 0021 Exclamation mark !  
034 22 0022 quotation mark " "
035 23 0023 Number sign #  
036 24 0024 Dollar sign $  
037 25 0025 Percent sign %  
038 26 0026 Ampersand & &
039 27 0027 Apostrophe '  
040 28 0028 Left parenthesis (  
041 29 0029 Right parenthesis )  
042 2A 002A Asterisk *  
043 2B 002B Plus sign +  
044 2C 002C Comma ,  
045 2D 002D Hyphen -  
046 2E 002E Period (fullstop) .  
047 2F 002F Solidus (slash) /  
048 30 0030 0 0  
049 31 0031 1 1  
050 32 0032 2 2  
051 33 0033 3 3  
052 34 0034 4 4  
053 35 0035 5 5  
054 36 0036 6 6  
055 37 0037 7 7  
056 38 0038 8 8  
057 39 0039 9 9  
058 3A 003A Colon :  
059 3B 003B Semi-colon ;  
060 3C 003C less-than sign < &lt;
061 3D 003D Equals sign; =  
062 3E 003E greater-than sign > &gt;
063 3F 003F Question mark ?  
064 40 0040 Commercial at @  
065 41 0041 A A  
066 42 0042 B B  
067 43 0043 C C  
068 44 0044 D D  
069 45 0045 E E  
070 46 0046 F F  
071 47 0047 G G  
072 48 0048 H H  
073 49 0049 I I  
074 4A 004A J J  
075 4B 004B K K  
076 4C 004C L L  
077 4D 004D M M  
078 4E 004E N N  
079 4F 004F O O  
080 50 0050 P P  
081 51 0051 Q Q  
082 52 0052 R R  
083 53 0053 S S  
084 54 0054 T T  
085 55 0055 U U  
086 56 0056 V V  
087 57 0057 W W  
088 58 0058 X X  
089 59 0059 Y Y  
090 5A 005A Z Z  
091 5B 005B Left square bracket [  
092 5C 005C Reverse solidus (backslash) \  
093 5D 005D Right square bracket ]  
094 5E 005E Caret ^  
095 5F 005F Horizontal bar (underscore) _  
096 60 0060 Acute accent `  
097 61 0061 a a  
098 62 0062 b b  
099 63 0063 c c  
100 64 0064 d d  
101 65 0065 e e  
102 66 0066 f f  
103 67 0067 g g  
104 68 0068 h h  
105 69 0069 i i  
106 6A 006A j j  
107 6B 006B k k  
108 6C 006C l l  
109 6D 006D m m  
110 6E 006E n n  
111 6F 006F o o  
112 70 0070 p p  
113 71 0071 q q  
114 72 0072 r r  
115 73 0073 s s  
116 74 0074 t t  
117 75 0075 u u  
118 76 0076 v v  
119 77 0077 w w  
120 78 0078 x x  
121 79 0079 y y  
122 7A 007A z z  
123 7B 007B Left curly brace {  
124 7C 007C Vertical bar |  
125 7D 007D Right curly brace }  
126 7E 007E Tilde ~  
160 A0 00A0 non-breaking space   &nbsp;
161 A1 00A1 inverted exclamation ¡ &iexcl;
162 A2 00A2 cent sign ¢ &cent;
163 A3 00A3 pound sterling £ &pound;
164 A4 00A4 general currency sign ¤ &curren;
165 A5 00A5 yen sign ¥ &yen;
166 A6 00A6 broken vertical bar ¦ &brvbar;
167 A7 00A7 section sign § &sect;
168 A8 00A8 umlaut (dieresis) ¨ &uml;
169 A9 00A9 copyright © &copy;
170 AA 00AA feminine ordinal ª &ordf;
171 AB 00AB left angle quote, guillemotleft « &laquo;
172 AC 00AC not sign ¬ &not;
173 AD 00AD soft hyphen ­ &shy;
174 AE 00AE registered trademark ® &reg;
175 AF 00AF macron accent ¯ &macr;
176 B0 00B0 degree sign ° &deg;
177 B1 00B1 plus or minus ± &plusmn;
178 B2 00B2 superscript two ² &sup2;
179 B3 00B3 superscript three ³ &sup3;
180 B4 00B4 acute accent ´ &acute;
181 B5 00B5 micro sign µ &micro;
182 B6 00B6 paragraph sign &para;
183 B7 00B7 middle dot · &middot;
184 B8 00B8 cedilla ¸ &cedil;
185 B9 00B9 superscript one ¹ &sup1;
186 BA 00BA masculine ordinal º &ordm;
187 BB 00BB right angle quote, guillemotright » &raquo;
188 BC 00BC fraction one-fourth ¼ &frac14;
189 BD 00BD fraction one-half ½ &frac12;
190 BE 00BE fraction three-fourths ¾ &frac34;
191 BF 00BF inverted question mark ¿ &iquest;
192 C0 00C0 capital A, grave accent À &Agrave;
193 C1 00C1 capital A, acute accent Á &Aacute;
194 C2 00C2 capital A, circumflex accent  &Acirc;
195 C3 00C3 capital A, tilde à &Atilde;
196 C4 00C4 capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark Ä &Auml;
197 C5 00C5 capital A, ring Å &Aring;
198 C6 00C6 capital AE diphthong (ligature) Æ &AElig;
199 C7 00C7 capital C, cedilla Ç &Ccedil;
200 C8 00C8 capital E, grave accent È &Egrave;
201 C9 00C9 capital E, acute accent É &Eacute;
202 CA 00CA capital E, circumflex accent Ê &Ecirc;
203 CB 00CB capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark Ë &Euml;
204 CC 00CC capital I, grave accent Ì &Igrave;
205 CD 00CD capital I, acute accent Í &Iacute;
206 CE 00CE capital I, circumflex accent Î &Icirc;
207 CF 00CF capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark Ï &Iuml;
208 D0 00D0 capital Eth, Icelandic Ð &ETH;
209 D1 00D1 capital N, tilde Ñ &Ntilde;
210 D2 00D2 capital O, grave accent Ò &Ograve;
211 D3 00D3 capital O, acute accent Ó &Oacute;
212 D4 00D4 capital O, circumflex accent Ô &Ocirc;
213 D5 00D5 capital O, tilde Õ &Otilde;
214 D6 00D6 capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark Ö &Ouml;
215 D7 00D7 multiply sign × &times;
216 D8 00D8 capital O, slash Ø &Oslash;
217 D9 00D9 capital U, grave accent Ù &Ugrave;
218 DA 00DA capital U, acute accent Ú &Uacute;
219 DB 00DB capital U, circumflex accent Û &Ucirc;
220 DC 00DC capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark Ü &Uuml;
221 DD 00DD capital Y, acute accent Ý &Yacute;
222 DE 00DE capital THORN, Icelandic Þ &THORN;
223 DF 00DF small sharp s, German (sz ligature) ß &szlig;
224 E0 00E0 small a, grave accent à &agrave;
225 E1 00E1 small a, acute accent á &aacute;
226 E2 00E2 small a, circumflex accent â &acirc;
227 E3 00E3 small a, tilde ã &atilde;
228 E4 00E4 small a, dieresis or umlaut mark ä &auml;
229 E5 00E5 small a, ring å &aring;
230 E6 00E6 small ae, dipthong æ &aelig;
231 E7 00E7 small c, cedilla ç &ccedil;
232 E8 00E8 small e, grave accent è &egrave;
233 E9 00E9 small e, acute accent é &eacute;
234 EA 00EA small e, circumflex accent ê &ecirc;
235 EB 00EB small e, dieresis or umlaut mark ë &euml;
236 EC 00EC small i, grave accent ì &igrave;
237 ED 00ED small i, acute accent í &iacute;
238 EE 00EE small i, circumflex accent î &icirc;
239 EF 00EF small i, dieresis or umlaut mark ï &iuml;
240 F0 00F0 small eth, Icelandic ð &eth;
241 F1 00F1 small n, tilde ñ &ntilde;
242 F2 00F2 small o, grave accent ò &ograve;
243 F3 00F3 small o, acute accent ó &oacute;
244 F4 00F4 small o, circumflex accent ô &ocirc;
245 F5 00F5 small o, tilde õ &otilde;
246 F6 00F6 small o, dieresis or umlaut mark ö &ouml;
247 F7 00F7 division sign ÷ &divide;
248 F8 00F8 small o, slash ø &oslash;
249 F9 00F9 small u, grave accent ù &ugrave;
250 FA 00FA small u, acute accent ú &uacute;
251 FB 00FB small u, circumflex accent û &ucirc;
252 FC 00FC small u, dieresis or umlaut mark ü &uuml;
253 FD 00FD small y, acute accent ý &yacute;
254 FE 00FE small thorn, Icelandic þ &thorn;
255 FF 00FF small y, dieresis or umlaut mark ÿ &yuml;