Git is a distributed revision control system designed and developed by Linus Torvalds. Every Git clone is a full fledged repository with a complete history and full revision tracking capabilities, not dependant on network access or a central repository server.

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Quick guides

Setup remote Git repository on Mac OS X

In this tutorial a remote Git repository will be setup on the Mac OS X. This repository can be accessed using http. Before you continue you must setup an Apache web server on the Mac OS X.

If you install Xcode 4 on the Mac OS X, Git will be installed at: /usr/bin/git

To show which git version is installed, type: git --version

Operating system used
Mac OS 10.7 (Lion)

Software prerequisites
Apache web server on the Mac OS X

  1. On the remote machine:
    • In this tutorial a remote repository is setup which can be accessed over HTTP/DAV: or HTTPS/DAV:.
      Create a remote Git repository inside your web server docroot, type:

      cd /Library/WebServer/Documents
      sudo mkdir gitprojects
      cd /Library/WebServer/Documents/gitprojects
      sudo mkdir mydemoproject1.git

      In the Mac OS X the machine web server <docroot> is located at: /Library/WebServer/Documents

    • Create a bare git repository, type:
      cd /Library/WebServer/Documents/gitprojects/mydemoproject1.git
      sudo git --bare init

      You should see:
      Initialized empty Git repository in

      The meaning of bare:
      By default Git stores the actual bare repository files in a .git directory alongside all the development project files. But remote repositories only need the repository files in a .git directory and NOT the development project files.

    • To allow the web server to update the remote repository (push, clone, commit, etc) you must enable post-update file, type:
      cd /Library/WebServer/Documents/gitprojects/mydemoproject1.git/hooks
      sudo cp post-update.sample post-update

    • Change the owner to _www and group to _www of all files and folders within mydemoproject1.git, type:
      cd /Library/WebServer/Documents/gitprojects
      sudo chown -R _www:_www mydemoproject1.git

    • Execute file post-update, type:
      cd /Library/WebServer/Documents/gitprojects/mydemoproject1.git/hooks
      sudo -u _www ./post-update

    • Run the git command if you want to access the remote repository via http, type:
      sudo git --bare update-server-info

    • Steve is a developer and need read and write access to mydemoproject1.git.
      John is a tester and only needs read access.
      To set this up you must create two files:
      • /etc/apache2/other/htpasswd-git
      • /etc/apache2/other/htgroup-git

      Create htpasswd-git file::
      cd /etc/apache2/other

      sudo htpasswd -c htpasswd-git steve
      Password: [enter the sudo password]
      New password: [enter steve's password]
      Re-type password: [re-enter steve's password]
      Adding password for user steve

      sudo htpasswd htpasswd-git john
      New password: [enter john's password]
      Re-type password: [re-enter john's password]
      Adding password for user john

      Create htgroup-git file::
      cd /etc/apache2/other

      sudo vi htgroup-git
      Add the following lines in file htgroup-git:
      mydemoproject1-reader: steve john
      mydemoproject1-writer: steve

    • Create an Apache web server gitprojects configuration file:
      cd /etc/apache2/other
      sudo vi gitprojects.conf

      Add the following lines in file gitprojects.conf:
      DavLockDB "/usr/var/Davlock"

      <Directory /Library/WebServer/Documents/gitprojects>
          Dav On
          Deny from all
          AuthType Basic
          AuthName "Git repositories"
          AuthUserFile /etc/apache2/other/htpasswd-git
          AuthGroupFile /etc/apache2/other/htgroup-git

      <Directory /Library/WebServer/Documents/gitprojects/mydemoproject1.git>
          Allow from all
          Order allow,deny
          <Limit Get>
              Require group mydemoproject1-reader
              Require group mydemoproject1-writer

    • The WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) protocol provides a a framework for users to create, change and move files on a web server.
      Create a /usr/var directory:
      cd /usr
      sudo mkdir var

    • Change the owner to _www and group to _www for the var folder:
      cd /usr
      sudo chown _www:_www var
      sudo chmod 777 var

      In /usr/var, WebDav creates two files called:
      DavLock.dir and DavLock.pag
      The name DavLock is taken from the gitprojects.conf file

    • Restart apache web server, type:
      sudo apachectl restart

    • Test the remote repository, type:
      • Start Safari browser and enter url:

        You should see:
        You don't have permission to access /gitprojects/ on this server

      • Start Safari browser and enter url:

        You should see:
        iit repository login

      • Goto your homedirectory and clone the empty mydemoproject1.git respository, type:
        • cd ~
        • mkdir dump
        • cd dump
        • git clone http:[email protected]/gitprojects/mydemoproject1.git

        You should see:
        Cloning into gitprojects.mydemoproject1...
        Password: [enter steve's password]

        warning: You appear to have cloned an empty repository

        The folder mydemoproject1 is created.

  2. On the local machine:
    • Start your favourite editor (Eclipse, Xcode, etc..) and create a development project.
      Note: If you use Xcode, do not create a local git repository.

      In this example the development project parent folder is named: demoproject1

    • Open the Terminal application and go to this folder, type:
      cd demoproject1

    • Create an local git repository in your development project for your local files, type:
      git init

      You should see:
      Initialized empty Git repository in ../demoproject1/.git/

    • Add all files if your local Git repository, type:
      git add *

    • After the files are added you must commit these files, type:
      git commit -m "Initial version"

    • Create a link to the remote repository, type:
      git remote add origin http://mac.mobilefish.intranet/gitprojects/mydemoproject1.git

      To list the current remote URLs, type:
      git remote -v

      To change the remote URLs, type:
      git remote set-url origin <new_url>

    • If you are Steve, create in your home directory a .netrc file, type:
      • cd ~
      • vi .netrc

        Add the following lines in file .netrc
        machine mac.mobilefish.intranet
        login steve password steve_password

      • Make sure no one can access .netrc file, type:
        chmod 600 .netrc

    • Push you code to the remote repository, type:
      git push origin master

      You should see:

      Fetching remote heads...
      updating 'refs/heads/master'
         from 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
         to   d1b8ba6e498f7afd152b27e9b7bb40e97f7ec83b
         sending 3 objects
      Updating remote server info
      To http://mac.mobilefish.intranet/gitprojects/mydemoproject1.git
      * [new branch]      master -> master