Arduino

 
 
Arduino is a single-board open source microcontroller designed around an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller, or a 32-bit Atmel ARM.

Arduino Uno rev3.0

Arduino uno rev 3.0 front

The Arduino board exposes most of the microcontroller's I/O pins, allowing the CPU board to be connected to a variety of interchangeable add-on modules known as shields. Some shields communicate with the Arduino board directly over various pins, but many shields are individually addressable via an I2C serial bus, allowing many shields to be stacked and used in parallel.

Ethernet shield stacked on Arduino Uno

Ethernet shield stacked on Arduino Uno

The current Arduino Uno Revision 3 provide 14 digital I/O pins, six of which can produce pulse-width modulated signals, and six analog inputs. These pins are on the top of the board, via female 0.1-inch (2.5 mm) headers.

The Arduino integrated development environment (IDE) is a cross-platform application written in Java and consists of a standard programming language compiler and a boot loader that executes on the microcontroller. A program or code written for Arduino is called a sketch and are written in C or C++.

Arduino integrated development environment

Arduino integrated development environment

More information about Arduino can be found at: http://www.arduino.cc/

Quick guides






37 in 1 sensor module board set kit for Arduino



Information
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Operating system used
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Software prerequisites
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Sensor 1: PS2 game joystick axis sensor module


Led connected to pin 13

An analog 2-axis joystick with 2x 10K ohm pots and push button function. Connector pin descriptions are printed on the PCB. A push-on operating knob is included with the module.
Sensor 2: Flame sensor module
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A sensor module to detect flames. The spectral sensitivity of the sensor is optimized to detect emissions from naked flames. The output signal "DO" is pulled high (active high) when a flame is detected. The switching threshold is adjustable via a preset pot. An analog output signal from the sensor is available at pin "AO".
  • Typical spectral sensitivity: 720-1100nm
  • Typical detection angle: 60℃
Sensor 3: Full color LED module (3 color RGB)
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RGB-LED with clear lens and built-in 150 ohm series resistor for 5 V operation. The PCB printing is incorrect, it shows the blue and red connections switched. The LED has a common cathode (the "-" Pin).
Sensor 4: Finger measuring heartbeat module
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This module consists of an IR-LED and a photo transistor which can be used to read a pulse when a fingertip is positioned between the LED and photo transistor. The module requires additional external circuitry. A 330 ohm series resistor for the LED is included. The 5 V supply connects to the centre pin, ground to the "-" pin. The photo transistor signal is available on the "S" pin which has a built-in pullup resistor.
Sensor 5: Magic light cup module
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This module incorporates a mercury tilt switch and clear red LED. "G" is the common connection to the LED cathode and one terminal of the switch. "S" is the other switch contact and "L" connects to the LED anode (a series resister is required for the LED, 220 ohms for example). The "+" pin connects to a 10 K ohm pullup resistor connected to "S" of the switch.
Sensor 6: Analog hall magnetic sensor module
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A Hall sensor module with analog output signal. The ground pin is marked "-", centre pin is +5 V supply (Vs) and the output signal is on the "S" pin.
Sensor 7: Relay Module
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A relay module suitable for direct connection to an Arduino board. The module requires 5 V power supply. The input control signal is identified with an "S". The relay has one change-over contact. It is capable of switching resistive loads up to 10 A at 250 VAC and up to 10 A at 30 V maximum. Do not forget to provide interference suppression for the switched load!

Sensor 8: Linear hall magnetic module
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Linear Hall Sensor module to detect the presence of a magnetic field near the sensor. Variables such as field strength, polarity and position of the magnet relative to the sensor will affect point at which the "DO" output switches to a high level (i.e. active high). The circuit sensitivity can be adjusted with a pot. An analog output signal from the sensor is available at pin "AO".
Sensor 9: Full color LED SMD module (3 colors)
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RGB-LED with an SMD housing and no series resistor. The PCB printing is incorrect, it shows the green and red connections switched. The LED has a common cathode (the "-" pin). A suitable resistor value would be 220 ohms.
Sensor 10: 7 color flashing LED module automatically
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Clear 5mm LED for direct operation from 5V. The LED color automatically cycles through a seven-color sequence. The 5 V supply connects to the "S" pin and ground on the centre pin.
Sensor 11: Mercury tilt switch module
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Mercury tilt switch which makes or breaks depending on its attitude.
Sensor 12: Temperature (DS18B20) sensor module
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A module with a digital "One Wire" temperature sensor (DS18B20). A 4.7K ohm pullup resistor is included for the bus signal. Additional sensors can be added to the bus and individually addressed. Only one pullup resistor should be connected to the bus, irrespective of the number of sensors connected.
  • Temperature range: -55 to +125 ℃
  • Typical accuracy: 0.5℃
  • Resolution: 9-12Bit, depending on the program
Measures the ambient temperature.

The module uses a single-bus digital temperature sensor DS18B20, the external power supply voltage range is 3.0 V to 5.5 V. No standby power.

Measurement temperature range:
-55 ℃ to +125 ℃ (67 ℉ to 257 ℉)
Between -10 ℃ to +85 ℃ the range accuracy is ±0.5 ℃

The temperature sensor is a programmable resolution of 9 to 12 temperature conversion to 12-bit digital format with a maximum of 750 milliseconds formula. User definable nonvolatile temperature alarm settings.
Each DS18B20 has a unique serial number which can be used when multiple DS18B20 temperature sensors are used.

Sensor 13: High sensitivity sound detection module
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A microphone module featuring a high-sensitivity large-format electric capsule. Output "DO" (active high) is switched when the sound level exceeds a preset level. A pot allows adjustment of the level. The analog output signal is available at the "AO" pin.

Sensor 14: Touch module
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Touch sensitive switch. Touching the sensor pin produces an output at the "DO" pin. The output is not a clean signal but includes 50 Hz mains induced signals ("mains hum"). The output signal is "active high" and the circuit sensitivity can be adjusted with a pot. An analog output signal from the sensor is available at pin "AO".
Sensor 15: Two color (red and green LED common cathode) module. Diameter 5 mm.
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The 5mm LED has a common cathode connected to the "-" pin on the PCB. The centre pin connects to the red anode and the "S" pin connects to the green anode. No series resistor is included in the circuit. A suitable value for low voltage operation would be 220 ohms.
Sensor 16: Laser transmitter module
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Red Laser module for direct connection to a 5 V supply. Connect the 5 V supply to the "S" pin and ground to the "-" pin. Transmission wavelength: 650nm.
Sensor 17: Tilt switch module
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A built-in 10 K Ohm resistor connected between the middle and "S" pin is available for pull up or pull down use. The switch contacts connect to the two outer pins. Load switching max: 12VDC 50mA
Sensor 18: Analog temperature sensor
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NTC Temperature sensor module. The sensor resistance is approximately 10 k ohm at room temperature. The NTC sensor is connected between the two outer pins. A fixed 10 K ohm resistor connected between the middle pin and the "S" pin is included on the module. This simplifies the building of a measurement bridge circuit.
  • Temperature range: -55 to +125 ℃
  • Typical accuracy: 0.5℃
Sensor 19: Microphone sound detection module
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A microphone module with a small electret capsule. Output "DO" (active high) is switched when the sound level exceeds a preset level. A pot allows adjustment of the level. The analog output signal is available at the "AO" pin. Except for the smaller size of the capsule and its lower sensitivity the module is identical to the "High sensitivity sound detection module" module.
Sensor 20: Digital temperature module
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Temperature sensing module using an NTC thermistor. The output signal at "DO" switches high when the preset (adjustable) temperature is reached. An analog output signal from the sensor is available at pin "AO".
Sensor 21: Two color (red and green LED common cathode) module. Diameter 3 mm.
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The 3mm bi-color LED has a common cathode (- pin), connected with the "-" pin on the PCB. The centre pin activates the red light and the "S" pin the green light. No series resistor is included in the circuit. A suitable value for low voltage operation would be 220 ohms.
Sensor 22: Key switch module
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A built-in 10 K ohm resistor is connected between the centre pin and the "S" pin and can be used as a pull up or pull down resistor. The push button connects the two outer pins.

The Button.h library (available from Arduino) is suitable for use with this.
Sensor 23: Photoresistor module
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LDR (Light Dependant Resistor). Dark resistance >20M Ohm, light <80 Ohm. The two outer pins connect to the LDR. A fixed 10 K ohm resistor connected between the middle pin and the "S" pin is included on the module. This simplifies the building of a measurement bridge circuit.
Sensor 24: Infrared transmitter module
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The IR-LED can be used to build a light barrier or an IR remote control signal transmitter.
Sensor 25: Tracking module
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IR light reflection switch, useful for obstacle avoidance or line following on models that move around the floor. An obstacle in front of the sender/receiver diodes will cause the "out" pin to be pulled low (active low). A pot allows adjustment of the circuits sensitivity. The detection distance can be up to approximately 1 cm.
Sensor 26: Buzzer module
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Electronic buzzer for 5 V operation. Ensure correct polarity! Positive supply to the "-" pin and ground to the "S" pin! Data: Typical operating frequency 4000Hz at 80dB min, 5V DC at 5mA typical TMB12A05 or equivalent.

Tip to avoid mix up: The buzzer housing is slightly taller than the loudspeaker housing and has a label showing the + pin ident.
Sensor 27: Reed switch module
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This reed switch offers an analog as well as a digital interface. The "G" pen is connected to GND, the "+" pen to 5V DC, the "AO" pen offers the analog output while the "DO" offers the digital output. A potentiometer is used as a pull up resistor.
Sensor 28: Vibration/shock switch module
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A built-in 10 K ohm resistor is connected between the centre pin and the "S" pin and can be used as a pull up or pull down resistor. The switch contacts connect to the two outer pins.
Sensor 29: Digital temperature and humidity sensor module
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A module with a temperature/humidity sensor type DHT11, Temperature range: 0 - 50℃ (+/-2℃), Rel. humidity: 20-95% (+/-5%), Supply voltage: 3 to 5.5V. With a built-in 10 K ohm pullup resistor. Library: DHT.h
Sensor 30: Infrared receiver module
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Infrared sensor type 1838 for use with 38KHz IR signals.
  • Supply voltage: 2.7 to 5.5 V
  • Frequency: 37.9 KHz
  • Receiver range: 18m (typical)
  • Receiving angle: 90°
  • Library: https://github.com/z3t0/Arduino-IRremote
Sensor 31: Infrared obstacle avoidance sensor
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IR-reflection sensor, useful for obstacle avoidance applications. When an obstacle is in front of the IR sender/receiver the "Out" pin is switched low (active low). The circuit sensitivity can be adjusted with a pot. The obstacle detection distance can be adjusted up to approximately 7cm. An enable (EN) jumper can be fitted for continuous operation. Removal of the EN jumper allows an external logic signal (at the EN pin) to switch the detector on and off (low = active, high = off).
Sensor 32: Passive buzzer
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Mini loudspeaker module ca. 16 Ohm Impedance, (maximum continuous current through the speaker coil is approximately 25 mA.) Don't mix this one up with the buzzer module! The outer two pins connect to the speaker. Polarity is unimportant.

Tip to avoid mix up: The loudspeaker housing is not as tall as the buzzer housing.
Sensor 33: Mini reed switch module
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The reed switch is connected between the two outer pins on the PCB. Without a magnetic field the contacts remain open. A built-in 10 K ohm resistor is connected between the centre pin and the "S" pin. It can be used as a pull up or pull down resistor.
Sensor 34: Rotary encoder module
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Rotary encoder useful for making an electronic pot etc. Connection idents are printed on the PCB.
Sensor 35: Analog hall magnetic sensor module
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The Hall-Sensor-Switch (bipolar) module features a 44E311, 3144EUA-S or 3144LUA-S sensor together with an LED and resistor. The LED switches on when a magnetic field is detected. The ground pin is marked "-", centre pin is +5 V supply (Vs) and the output signal is on the "S" pin.
Sensor 36: Knock/tap sensor module
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Vibration sensor module. The momentary switch contacts are connected between the two outer pins.
Sensor 37: Photo interrupter module
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Slotted light barrier. The middle pin connects to + 5 V supply and the pin marked "-" connects to ground. The output signal (with a 10 K ohm pullup to +5 V) is available on the pin on the right.